Jeremy Iles-North, the great, great grandson of Charles North has had his Y chromosome DNA tested for both deep ancestry (original origins) and for recent Scottish, Celt and Viking origins. The latter was done because there is some doubt about the Scottish ancestry claimed by Charles Niven McIntyre North. As you probably are aware the y chromosome is handed down by the male line, and having very few mutations, is a good indicator of male line origins. Jeremy summarises the findings.
(As tested by National Geogrpahic)
The North male line (ie: male to male) is Halogroup R1b and our markers are M168>M89>M45>M207>M173>M343. Skeletal and archaeological evidence suggests that modern humans evolved in Africa 200,000 years ago and began to move out to colonize the rest of the world 60,000 years ago. Our original “North” male ancestors (M168) lived in the rift valley, perhaps in present day Ethiopia, Kenya or Tanzania around 31,000 to 79,000 years ago. Scientists put the most likely date at 50,000 years ago. Their descendants became the only lineage to survive outside Africa, making them to be the common ancestor of all non African man living today.
50,000 years ago during a temporary retreat of the ice age when the climate in Africa became warmer, a window of opportunity opened to the north where the inhospitable Sahara desert briefly became habitable. As the Sahara changed to savanna, animal life expanded north out of Africa and our nomadic ancestors followed the weather and the animals they hunted. Many scientists believe that this climate change coincided with a leap forward in intellectual skills, language and art, helping this small group to exploit the opportunity and replace other hominids.
Some 45,000 years ago marker group M89 probably followed the expanding grasslands and plentiful game to the middle east and beyond. However around 40,000 years ago the climate shifted again and became colder and more arid, and the Saharan gateway was closed again. Our ancestor group had two options stay in the Middle East or move on.
Marker group M9 moved on to the semi arid grass covered plains then stretching from France to Central Asia some 40,000 years ago. Born in Iran or Central Asia they spent the next 30,000 years populating much of the planet, dispersing gradually. Seasoned hunters followed the game ever eastwards where they hit three massive mountain ranges in Tajikistan, where they split into two groups. Some moved south to Pakistan and India, but our ancestors went to Central Asia.
Marker Group M45 stayed in Central Asia in the game rich steppes of present day Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Southern Siberia. However the environment on the Eurasian plains became more hostile and forcing the ancestors to move North following the herds. They learnt to build portable animal skin shelters, develop new weapons to take on bigger game and to use bone needles to sew skins together. Their abilty to survive the Siberian ice age was critical.
Following difficult conditions in Central Asia, Marker Group 207 heads west towards the European subcontinent. This group splits into two, one continuing on towards Europe, the other eventually to India.
Marker Group 173 colonized Europe and heralded the end of the Neandertals who had inhabited Europe from about 290,000 to 29,000 years ago. The wave of migration was marked by the appearance of “Aurignacion” culture. This suggests a significant innovation in the manufacture, standardisation and development of a broader range of tools. Evidence of jewellery, decoration and art suggest increasing social skills too. However around 20,000 years ago expanding sheets of ice forced this group to Spain, Italy and the Balkans but around 12,000 years ago many descendants of group 173 moved North again, including ancestors who carried Marker Group 343 the
This group is responsible for the famous cave paintings in the South of France as evidence of the blossoming of skills. They knew how to make woven clothing from natural fibres and had relatively advanced tools of stone, bone and ivory. It is this group that eventually colonized the British Isles, see below.
The male North line belongs to the Pretani subgroup, a marker for the first people to cross to the British Isles and Ireland. This group must have arisen early in the settlement of the Isles, indeed the ancient Irish and Pictish subgroups are sister groups.
This group has a high incidence in Ireland today around 85% and less in England and Scotland (around 50%) . However the subgroup does not exactly match the Norse, Viking, Caledonian, Anglo Saxon, Pictish, Irish, Northmen , Scandinavian or Germanic subgroups thus we are perhaps more likely to be amongst the early celts spreading to the West Country, Wales, Ireland and perhaps to Scotland.
When direcly asked about this Dr Gianpiero Cavalleri of EthnoAncestry states: “The Pretani group is observed across the British Isles and Ireland. We currently do not have the resolution to be able to divide it up and lock subtypes down to a particular area. Given that the type is seen across the British Isles and Ireland we cannot determine from where within this area your male ancestor came from - could well be Ireland or Scotland, we just can't determine which with your particular type.
Jeremy Iles- North comments: “My conclusion is that we may have Scottish Ancestry but it may devolve from the Celts who settled in Scotland either through war or settlement and there is almost certainly ancient British and Irish stock there too since the original M343 group, who formed the first to cross to England and to whom we are directly linked, must have crossed the channel in the south as the ice age retreated North.
It does not disprove Charles Niven McIntyre North`s claim but neither does it prove it”
EthnoAncestry is pleased to announce the release of two exciting new Y
chromosome SNP markers, S168 and S169, each of which defines a new
subgroup of your group R1b-S145 (“Pretani”).
S168 defines a subgroup which originated in Ireland over 1000 years ago
and is particularly common in the southwest of the country, for example
in Counties Clare, Tipperary, Limerick and Cork. It has been seen in
Scotland and England, but much more rarely. It has been suggested that
this type marks descent from the DalCassian clans, the descendants of
Cormac Cas. Most prominent amongst these are the O’Briens, the
descendants of Brian Boru, the famous High King of Ireland.
S169 defines a different subgroup which is also over 1000 years old and
appears to originate in Ireland, but this time concentrated in Leinster
in the east of the country, particularly the neighbouring counties of
Wicklow, Kildare and Wexford. It is also found in Scotland and England
at lower frequencies, mostly around the Irish Sea. In some cases it may
indicate descent from the chieftains of the Lagin in Ireland.